# Force in Aether physics

### Abstract

The Aether physically supports the electric and the gravitational potentials everywhere. Fundamental mass particles (FMPs) create fields of potential difference which super-position to give the ambient field. FMPs and light are caused to accelerate at a rate proportional to the local ambient field gradient. Magnetism is not fundamental. The Strong and Weak forces are derivatives of the electric force.

Every physicist knows the equation F = ma (force equals mass times acceleration)
This equation implies that the acceleration of a massive body is caused by the application of a force to that body.
This may seem to be true for our macroscopic world but it is not the case for fundamental mass particles (FMPs) and therefore neither for matter in general.

### In Aether Physics forces do not exist.

So what causes acceleration? The explanation is somewhat complex.
The Aether, which occupies all Space, possesses certain physical properties.
Two of these are local internal 'pressure' and local propagation velocity.
The propagation velocity is believed to be determined by the equation c2 = C/ρ--C is the internal 'pressure' and ρ the aethon density. This equation is identical to that applicable to matter.

### In Aether physics the internal 'pressure' is taken to be the electric potential and the propagation velocity the gravitational potential.

Thus these two potentials are physical aspects of the Aether supported at every point throughout Space.

It is the case, however, that both matter and energy depend upon spatial differences in these two potentials.
For convenience differences may be measured relative to any arbitrary datum point; often an infinite distance from matter.
To be more exact, matter and energy are concerned with the local gradient of these potentials.

### Aether physics proposes that all matter is constructed of fundamental matter particles (FMPs).

(FMPs and their internal construction are speculation. However much of Modern Physics is pure speculation, eg. virtual photons, gravitons, Higgs bosuns etc.)
FMP come in two main types--of either positive or negative charge. See the paper Matter in Aether Physics.
We may assume that a positive electric potential equates to an increased Aether 'pressure' relative to ambient pressure and a negative potential to decreased 'pressure' (but it could equally be the reverse).
The essence of charge is the capability to cause an equal electric potential relative to ambient at a set radius from the FMP.

The FMP generated potential is passed on through the Aether by aethon to aethon contact at the speed of light (see the paper The Electric Field in Aether Physics). The magnitude is calculated to diminish inversely with increasing distance from the source out to infinity.
Thus the charge generates an infinite field (over infinite time) of electric potential difference.

It is also proposed that an FMP causes an increase in local aethon density irrespective of charge polarity (see the paper Gravity in Aether Physics.
The increase in aethon density is proportional to the total mass.
The local increase in density is calculated to diminish with inverse distance from the source, thus creating a field of density difference extending out to infinity in a similar manner to the electric field.
The paper on Gravity demonstrates that the propagation velocity (gravitational potential) is an inverse function of aethon density.
Thus light slows the closer to a massive body.

As FMP potential fields are infinite in extent the field of each FMP necessarily overlaps the fields of all other FMPs in the Universe at every point in the Universe.
At every point the potential of each field super-positions (combines arithmetically) with the potentials of the infinity of the other fields.
The result is the local ambient potential.

It can be seen that the ambient potentials of the Aether vary according to their proximity to an (or group of) FMP. Thus the potential gradient also varies spatially.
If one considers just a single FMP inhabiting the Universe the gradient of the potential field diminishes with the inverse square of the distance from the source. The link between accelerating ability and field gradient is obvious.

### The action of a potential gradient on light and matter

The paper, Gravity in Aether Physics, explains that light, passing tangentially to a massive body, is caused to bend towards the body by the gravitational potential gradient that it crosses.
This bending is the equivalent of an acceleration toward the body and is twice that of matter at the same point.

The paper proposes that the same mechanism which accelerates light also causes the acceleration of matter by bending the rotating internal electric potentials of the FMP.

It must be the case that the local ambient electric gradient super-positions upon the rotating electric potentials of the FMP--thereby distorting them and thus bending their paths.
The paths of a positive FMP are bent in the opposite direction to a negative FMP.
As described in the paper the bending of the internal paths of an FMP modifies the internal screw geometry which determines the Aether velocity of the FMP.
Thus the velocity of the FMP is changed at a rate proportional to the magnitude of the local potential gradient.

### Action at a distance explained

Consider just two positive charges separated by a distance of Space. Each charge lies in its local ambient electric potential field which consists of the super-position of the two fields. But FMPs are not affected by their own field so in effect they lie only in the field of the other charge. Thus the gradients of those fields (pointing in opposite directions) accelerate each charge in the opposite direction to the other. Each charge responds to its local ambient field and has no knowledge of the body or bodies which caused that field.
The effect is transferred across Space by the prior establishment of the potential fields via aethon to aethon contact.

### Thus both electric and gravitational ambient fields cause an acceleration of FMPs.

The gradient of propagation velocity has a much lesser acceleration effect on an FMP than the gradient of electric potential.

### The Magnetic force

The magnetic force is not fundamental but a derivative of the electric field. See the paper Magnetism in Aether Physics.

### The Strong and the Weak force

The Strong and the Weak forces are considered to be derivatives of the electric force in some manner similar to the inter-atomic forces. In these cases the operating range is short as at longer range the separate internal positive and negative charges effectively merge into a neutral body.
With short range forces the two particles affected are readily identified and appear to be creating a 'force' upon each other.

### The acceleration of bulk matter

Bulk matter consists of a large quantity of positive FMPs combined with an equal quantity of negative FMPs.
The gravitational gradient acts upon each FMP individually irrespective of polarity such that they all accelerate identically.
On the other hand an electric gradient accelerates the +ve FMPs in the opposite direction to the -ve FMPs.
But the relative movement of the +ve to the -ve FMPs changes the strength of their own electric fields at the position of each other. Furthermore the centrifugal forces of -ve FMPs circing +ve FMPs (and vice versa) is destabilised. The consequence is that the charged particles do not accelerate away from each other continuously but merely restabilise in slightly different proximity to each other.

When one matter body comes into close proximity to another matter body the inter atomic electric forces act upon the surface atoms of each body at the point of contact. The surface atoms are accelerated apart. In moving apart they come closer to their neighbours within the body and so cause those atoms to also move away. This effect ripples through the body such that eventually (but in a very short time) the two bodies move apart. Either that or one body is continuously accelerated by continuous contact with the other.